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Wilmington College 2005 

Cereal Grain Crops

Common Name:

Rice

Latin Name:

Oryza sativa

Variety:

Jefferson

Crop Origin:

Asia

Type:

Annual grain, upland

Date Planted:

transplanted 24 May, 2005

Growth Stages in Ohio

Rice Jan 1 06.JPG (3271734 bytes) Rice feb 6 06.JPG (2082973 bytes) Rice March 4 06.JPG (3651225 bytes) Rice Apr 4 06.JPG (3888831 bytes) Rice May 5 06.JPG (3417916 bytes) Rice 3 June 05.JPG (2747142 bytes)
January February March April May June
Rice 1 July 05.JPG (3662821 bytes) Rice 7aug05.JPG (3049533 bytes) Rice 3 sep 05.JPG (3120890 bytes) Rice 1 oct 05.JPG (3047350 bytes) Rice 4 Nov 05.JPG (3570535 bytes) Rice 2 dec 05.JPG (3688528 bytes)
July August

September

October November December

Donated by Texas A & M University

Cultivation in Ohio

Primary Uses:

Grain

 Planting:

Upland rice may be started in a nursery and transplanted but more commonly is direct seeded much like wheat with little or no irrigation.

 Seeding Rate:

Because all areas are direct seeded, weeds and poor stand establishment are significant problems.  Seed rate for Jefferson planted by drilling is 90-100 lbs/A, broadcast is 110-120 lbs/A and 120-130 lbs/A when water planted.

Fertility:

The efficiency with which applied N is absorbed by the rice crop varies greatly among MVs and environments. In most cases, inefficient plant recovery of applied N is the largest constraint to high agronomic efficiency. For irrigated rice, uptake efficiency ranges from 20 to 60% of the applied N although average efficiency is between 30 and 40% in most areas. Low efficiency reflects poor agronomic management and the dynamic nature of N in the soil-floodwater system, which leads to gaseous losses through NH3 volatilization and denitrification. Avoiding N inputs in excess of crop needs at any point during the growing season is the key to optimizing N use efficiency and minimizing gaseous losses . Hence, the timing, rate, and method of application have a large impact on efficiency. Several split applications of N are needed to achieve an N supply that approximates plant demand.

Insects:

Many species of organisms inhabit rice fields. Most of these organisms are not harmful. For example, some 500 species of arthropods (insects and spiders) may appear in a rice field in a given season, but only a very few are a potential threat. Most are beneficial or innocent, and include a wide range of predatory and parasitic natural enemies that contribute to keeping the insect pest organisms in check.

Diseases:

Seed rot and seedling blight are important problems in the seedling stages.  Other important diseases are Rice blast (Pyricularia grisea), Kernel smut (Tilletia barclayanna),  Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani), Stem rot (Sclerotium oryzae), Narrow brown leaf spot (Cercospora janseana), Panicle blanking complex, Black sheath rot (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis), and False smut (Ustilaginoidea virens).  Jefferson is resistant to Blast; moderately resistant to Sheath blight, Brown leaf spot and Narrow leaf spot; but susceptible to Stem rot.

Harvest:

In the US, rice is harvested directly with self-propelled combines and dried artificially before storing or milling.

Comments:

Weeds are an almost universal companion of rice in the tropics. In many situations, weed growth ins prolific and weeds are a major constraint on crop yield. The direct loss in rice production due to weeds in farmers fields in Asia is reported to average about 20%, with losses reaching 40-100% where weeds are not controlled. Weeding is a major production cost, with estimates of 50-150 person days per hectare required for manual weeding, depending on the number of weedings and type of rice culture. For many farmers, weeding requires the greatest labor input during the agricultural cycle, labor that is often not available when weeds are most damaging to the crop. Upland rice more than any other crop shows the ravages of lack of proper weeding. Sometimes, when the land is too weedy the crop is abandoned.     TCS

Identification

Leaf:

Rice_ leaf1.JPG (1580375 bytes) Rice_ leaf3.JPG (1707559 bytes)

Flower:

Rice_ panicle_ in_ flower.JPG (1912450 bytes)

Seeds:

Rice_paddy_seed.JPG (1286008 bytes) Rice_ panicle.JPG (1858652 bytes)

Distribution:

More Information

Links:

http://www.usriceproducers.com
http://www.irri.org