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Wilmington College 2005 

 Cereal Grain Crops

Common Name:

Wheat

Latin Name:

Triticum aestivum

Variety:

Bronze Chief

Crop Origin:

Mediterranean area

Type:

Annual grain - Hard Red Spring

Date Planted:

8 May, 2006

Growth Stages in Ohio

Wheat HRS Jan 1 06.JPG (3607584 bytes) Wheat HRS feb 6 06.JPG (1948120 bytes) Wheat HRS March 4 06.JPG (3628266 bytes) Wheat HRS Apr 4 06.JPG (3495611 bytes) Wheat HRS May 5 06.JPG (3168374 bytes) Wheat HRS 3 June 05.JPG (3505857 bytes)
January February March April May June
Wheat HRS 1 July 05.JPG (3959673 bytes) Wheat HRS 7aug05.JPG (2726590 bytes) Wheat HRS 3 sep 05.JPG (2941539 bytes) Wheat HRS 1 oct 05.JPG (3072391 bytes) Wheat HRS 4 Nov 05.JPG (3604138 bytes) Wheat HRS 2 dec 05.JPG (3856867 bytes)
July August

September

October November December

Cultivation in Ohio

Primary Uses:

Grain

 Planting:

Recommended planting dates for N. Dakota are before May 1st.  Under Ohio conditions this would probably give a recommended planting date earlier than April 15th.  Later planting dates cause exposure to daytime temperatures above 63 F which reduces the number of spikelets per head.

 Seeding Rate:

A reasonable final stand is 1,250,000 main stems/acre.  To achieve this goal you would need to plant around 1,388,900 seeds/acre, or 103 lbs/acre.  For a 100 sq. ft. plot the amount of seed is 108 gms.  Row spacing is variable but a spacing of 8-10 inches seems typical.

Fertility:

Nitrogen rates vary depending on the yield goal for the crop.  For a 60 bu/A yield goal about 150 lb N/acre total N is required.  P and K rates are set according to soil test values.  

Insects:

Possible problems are caused by Russian Wheat Aphid, Armyworms, Cutworms, Wireworms, Grasshoppers, Wheat Stem Sawfly, Hessian Fly, Wheat Midge, and Wheat Stem Maggot.

Diseases:

Proper seed treatment will prevent many seedling diseases.  Other types of diseases causing problems on spring wheat are Loose Smut, Root Rots, Take-all, various rusts, Tan Spot, Septoria, Wheat Streak Mosaic, Scab, and Glume Blotch.  Resistant varieties are the most economical method of prevention.

Harvest:

Shattering is a major cause of grain loss in the field.  Wheat should be combined as soon as grain moisture drops below 15-18%.  Swathing may be done as soon as grain reaches physiological maturity (about 35%) as a means of reducing cracked or damaged grains.

Comments:

Spring wheat is not normally planted in Ohio.  These practices are taken from recommendations for North Dakota.      TCS

Identification

Leaf:

 Wheat HRS leaf3.JPG (2915911 bytes) Wheat_HRS_plant.JPG (1120957 bytes)

Flower:

Wheat HRS head1.JPG (2019652 bytes) Wheat_HRS_Flower_1.jpg (1503967 bytes)

Seeds:

Wheat_HRS_seed.JPG (1297246 bytes) Wheat HRS seedhead.JPG (1442454 bytes)

Distribution:

springwheatmap.gif (12356 bytes)

More Information

Links:

http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/plantsci/smgrains/a1050-1.htm